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Voter News and Issues ~ Helpcom.net
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On Teddy Roosevelt
It Is Written New Page 1


On Teddy Roosevelt

The poorest way to face life is to face it with a sneer. A cynical habit of thought and speech, a readiness to criticize work which the critic himself never tries to perform, an intellectual aloofness which will not accept contact with life's realities—all these are marks, not ... of superiority but of weakness.

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Brad Smith / I'm not a big fan of Teddy Roosevelt, but I am a big fan of this speech and its sentiment, and think libertarian academics, who tend to sit around bitch about politicians who compromise, should consider it:

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“The poorest way to face life is to face it with a sneer. A cynical habit of thought and speech, a readiness to criticize work which the critic himself never tries to perform, an intellectual aloofness which will not accept contact with life's realities—all these are marks, not ... of superiority but of weakness.

"It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat."

 

Posted by editor on Thursday, February 09 @ 21:34:48 MST (638 reads)
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Helpcom Viewer Stats for 1/25/2017
It Is Written New Page 1
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Posted by editor on Wednesday, January 25 @ 10:53:11 MST (742 reads)
(Read More... | Score: 0)




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A nation which does not remember what it was yesterday, does not know what it is
It Is Written

BLACK FOLKS AND THE REPUBLICAN PARTY

In 1911, President Woodrow Wilson wisely observed: A nation which does not remember what it was yesterday, does not know what it is today, nor what it is trying to do. We are trying to do a futile thing if we do not know where we came from or what we have been about. It is a sadly, misunderstood historical fact that it is the Republican Party, not the Democrats, that has fought untiringly for the recognition of Black Americans as full, productive citizens of this country.

Posted by editor on Tuesday, August 11 @ 15:42:21 MST (1552 reads)
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GOD v. DETROIT who wins? Not Obama !!
It Is Written *

GOD JUST DROPPED THE HEAVIEST

RAIN ON DETROIT IN 80 YEARS!

Thomas Lipscomb

Commentary


AFTER ENDURING MONTHS OF SNIVELING BY DETROIT RESIDENTS CLAIMING "WATER IS A HUMAN RIGHT" (presumably along with crack and grand theft auto) WHO HADN'T PAID THEIR WATER BILLS IN MONTHS AND FINALLY GOT SHUT OFF...

GOD JUST DROPPED THE HEAVIEST RAIN ON DETROIT IN 80 YEARS!

I guess the UN can go back to harassing supervised elections and investigating Israeli atrocities and forget their planned "mercy investigation" of Detroit Water Aid.

buy medicines online pharmacy brand viagra online medicine online shopping generic dostinex Last news canadian pharmacy cialis optimise medicine use.
Posted by editor on Thursday, August 14 @ 02:32:09 MST (1905 reads)
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When the value of an Ivy education is measured in $ $ $
It Is Written When the value of an Ivy education is only measured in dollars and cents, you know its value is very low indeed.

When the value of an Ivy education is only measured in dollars and cents, you know its value is very low indeed. 

Thomas Lipscomb

Commentary

When the value of an Ivy education is only measured in dollars and cents, you know its value is very low indeed. The professoriate has lost its way. Can one expect more of its disciples?

Thanks to Richard K. Munro for finding this pearl in the swine sty of Newspeak.

American Horror, Ivy League Edition

Yale
Old Campus at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, November 28, 2012. 
Filed Under: Culture, Higher Education
Posted by editor on Tuesday, August 12 @ 05:17:40 MST (2045 reads)
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Sow the seeds for an Elected School Board in Norfolk
It Is Written Please help sow the seeds for an Elected School Board in Norfolk

Please help sow the seeds for an Elected School Board in Norfolk

    Since Lauren Compton (FOX 43) did a story on the Norfolk Elected School Board Referendum Petition drive on June 18th, we have had a great responce and gathered almost another 3,000 signatures, so we are close to the 11,579 mark of 10% of the voting public. We anticipate the registrar will invalidate about 25-30% of the signatures, so we have a final 13 day push to gather another 4,000 signatures.

 

 
 We have locations targeted but we need help. This is a totally non-partisan grass roots effort to turn our failing schools around and help our kids get a quality education. Below is request for donations and volunteers that we are sending out to our email list.
 

URGENT! Please help sow the seeds for an Elected School Board in Norfolk

 

“Norfolk Citizens for an Elected School Board”, needs your help. We are gathering petition signatures to put a referendum on the November ballot for an elected school board in Norfolk. Currently in Norfolk, our school board is “appointed” by city council and has been for the past 59 years. All other south side cities in Hampton Roads have an elected school board as well as most of the rest of the Commonwealth, and we think it’s time for a change in Norfolk as most of our schools are failing to meet accreditation.

      In order to put any referendum on any ballot for any community in Virginia you need 10% of the registered voters to agree to the referendum, and you have to have your signatures turned in to the local registrar’s office 111 days before the next election. That day is fast approaching and is in 2 weeks, on July 14th.

     So far, we have collected over 10,000 signatures, and in Norfolk and we need 11,579 registered voters to sign our petition. We expect to reach that number before the weekend. However, 20 years ago another group of concerned citizens took on a similar initiative, collected their signatures, and turned in 3,000 more signatures than needed. More than 3,000 signatures were not allowed, and the referendum never made it to the ballot.

     So we need your help. We must have thousands more signatures than required to be sure to get this on the ballot.

     We are doing neighborhood walks and are setting up tables at Norfolk DMV’s, Pretlow library, and Care A Lot pet supplies in Virginia Beach near our border. We need table sitters and walkers for parades, picnics, ball games, and any other public events we can identify.

      Our signage rate is over 90%, but it has just been a few of us gathering signatures. IT IS CRITICAL THAT YOU HELP US PUT THIS WAY OVER THE TOP. This referendum, should we gather enough qualified signatures, shall read: “Shall the method of selecting the school board be changed from appointment by the governing body to direct election by the voters?”

 

You can find us on the web at www.ElectedSchoolBoard.com. Please call 757-287-3401 to sign up and volunteer. Also, please ask all your Norfolk friends to seek us out and ask them to volunteer or, more importantly, COME, sign the petition.

 

Locations

 

Pretlow library: 111 W. Ocean View Ave.  Norfolk, VA 23503

Located at intersection of Granby St. and W. Ocean View Blvd.

 

Norfolk DMV north: 850 Widgeon Rd. Norfolk, VA 23513

1 block in on Widgeon Rd from Tidewater Dr. by interstate 64

 

Norfolk DMV Military Circle: 5745 Poplar Hall Rd. Norfolk, VA 23502

Just off Military highway near Costco

 

Care A Lot pet supplies: 1924 Diamond Springs Rd. Virginia Beach 23455                                                         A couple of blocks past Shore Drive and very close to Norfolk border.
Phone Number: 757 701-2300
I am willing to be interviewed on camera about this subject: Yes
Posted by editor on Tuesday, July 01 @ 14:12:25 MST (2760 reads)
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Identifying What's 'Reasonable' in Due Diligence
It Is Written

Identifying What's 'Reasonable' in Due Diligence

Sue Reisinger, Corporate Counsel

April 02, 2014

Corporate Counsel

The U.S. Department of Justice has recommended that companies do "reasonable due diligence" of third parties to avoid any risk of corruption—but DOJ hasn’t explained what reasonable due diligence actually is.

And for Albert Li, assistant general counsel/Americas for the medical device company Zimmer Holdings Inc., and for other in-house counsel, the devil can be in the details. Li plans to explore those details while speaking at a Consero Group corporate forum on compliance and ethics April 6-8 in Miami.

"It’s a hot-button issue for most multinational companies," Li told CorpCounsel.com, speaking personally and not for his company. "Not every company has the same budget or resources or risk. So you have to come to an internal assessment of your risk and determine what is your appropriate level of reasonable due diligence."

Another area of concern, Li said, is how to set or change the tone at the top of a company. "How do you encourage and support a culture of compliance when perhaps internal stakeholders don’t understand the risk?" he asked.

In the past four or five years, he said, companies have seen a proliferation of global anticorruption laws. "A decade ago it was just the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. But now there’s the UK Bribery Act, and Mexico and Brazil bring another layer."

In addition, he said, developed countries are starting to partner on investigations, while governments and trade associations are promoting more anticorruption measures in Latin America and Asian countries, where there’s a perception of higher corruption risk. The title of his panel at the conference is "Breaking Bad: Mitigating FCPA Risk."

Speaking on third-party due diligence at the forum will be Phillip Pesek, general counsel for Teck American Inc., a metal mining company based in Spokane, Wash.

Since last year, Pesek said his legal department has used an automated due diligence program. After reading a recent article about the corruption woes of the Canadian company SNC Lavalin, Pesek said it clarified the value of using such a program: "We work with SNC. Had we used the program before, we probably could have caught that they were under investigation much earlier than we did."

He went on to say SNC has worked hard to show that they have increased their compliance efforts, "and we are very satisfied with the direction they are going in."

There are many vendors out there with third-party programs, and Pesek said he uses one from Dun & Bradstreet that he discovered at last year’s Consero forum on compliance.

When his company first launched its anticorruption policy, Pesek said it involved a paper questionnaire that suppliers filled out. "There was a mountain of paperwork. Then what do you do with it?" he asked. "Do you have the manpower to make sure the information is correct or to look for red flags?"

He said the best thing about his company’s new program is that it creates a database of third-party suppliers, managed by a service provider that is automatically updated if a supplier is in the news. "And once you have this database, it’s easy to use it for other purposes," Pesek noted, "like exploring antimoney laundering, supply-chain risk, and social and environmental issues." One of the topics he’ll be addressing at the forum, he added, is how to leverage all the information collected.

Paul Mandell, founder and chief executive of Consero, explained in a statement the forum's purpose is to help in-house counsel and chief compliance officers "in their mission to avert and mitigate risks before they become full-blown crises."

Posted by editor on Friday, April 04 @ 07:26:42 MST (2591 reads)
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America would fall under the control of the Soviet Military
It Is Written

ALLEN W. DULLES

Director of Central Intelligence

Said America would fall under the control of the Soviet Military.

Waldorf Astoria Hotel, New York City

4 December 1959, 1:30 p.m., EST

In a speech given by Allen Dulles, who was at the time the Director of the CIA, he outlined the terms by which America would fall under the control of the Soviet Military.

While some merely scoffed at his suggestion of this possibility and considered it a "highly unlikely" circumstance, the stage was being set even then for that "possibility" to become a reality.

However, these guidelines should have been followed to the letter by anyone who would be chosen as the leader of the free world, but alas for the past 6 years, America has had no leader; no representative, and definitely nobody we could refer to as a statesman, a diplomat, or even a scholar...

What we have is the biggest fraud ever perpetrated on the American people...and he can veto any action taken against him, while laughing at all of us for trying to remove him.

Address by ALLEN W. DULLES

Director of Central Intelligence

before the

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS 64TH CONGRESS OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY

Waldorf Astoria Hotel, New York City

4 December 1959, 1:30 p.m., EST

Twelve years ago, on December 3, 1947, I had the honor of addressing the 52nd Annual Congress of American Industry, held by your Association. My subject on that occasion, as now, was, the Soviet Challenge. I then stated that this was a challenge to the United States "to prove that the system of free men under law can survive."

This is still a challenge. Only a few weeks ago Khrushchev amiably advised us, as he left the United States, that Communism would in time take us over.

In 1947 the Soviets were basing their hopes -- not so much on the economic and industrial might of their own system, as on their forecast of the imminent collapse of our free enterprise society.

Then it was Stalin, Molotov and Vishinsky who warned us and told the world that our Marshall Plan was merely a means of unloading excess commodities and capital to avoid an impending American crisis.

These old Soviet leaders have gone and so have gone many of their arguments. Their successors have largely abandoned the thesis of an early demise of capitalism due to its own defects. Now they boast that over the years, say by 1970, they will surpass us in total industrial output.

This is a boast which is not likely to be realized unless we "rest on our oars." What is of more immediate concern to us is the fact that the Soviets are using their growing industrial strength, which is still less than one-half of our own, largely to promote their national power aims rather than to give a fuller life to their own people. We are doing just the opposite.

A decade ago Moscow was speaking to us in threatening terms because we were giving aid overseas to meet the danger of economic breakdown and communist takeover in large parts of Europe. Now they propose to compete with us on a worldwide basis in the field of overseas aid and trade, hoping to win over the uncommitted nations of the world.

Then, though they had no atomic bombs, the Soviet were using the threat of their great conventional forces to help undermine Greece and Turkey and then later to menace the Free World in Berlin and Korea.

Now, while they preach coexistence and economic and industrial competition with the West, they also, on occasions, this week in fact, rattle the threat of ballistic missiles and give their support to the "hard core" Communists in their uneasy European satellites.

* * * * *

As representatives of this 64th Congress of American Industry, you have a legitimate interest in what your most aggressive foreign competitor, the Sino-Soviet Bloc, is doing and planning. Today this is not because this competitor is seriously threatening your domestic or even your foreign markets. It is rather because the pattern of this competitor's conduct and the impact of the Bloc's growing industrial power may have an important influence on the future direction of American industry and of our economy.

A wise European remarked to me the other day that in his opinion, the danger of war had receded, but that the dangers from international communism in other fields had increased.

In saying this he had two major thoughts in mind:

First, that the military situation would become a nuclear stalemate, the United States with its allies and the Sino-Soviet Bloc each having a sufficient supply of nuclear weapons and the means of delivery to inflict unacceptable damage on the other.

Second that, under these conditions, the competition might shift, at least for a time, from the military to the political and economic sectors with the Free World and free enterprise competing for the uncommitted world against all forms of penetration international communism. Such competition, short of war, is the more likely because Khrushchev, while he desires to inherit the earth, does not wish it to be a world devastated (sic) by nuclear weapons, -- also he thinks he is doing quite well as events are now developing.

* * * * *

It does not require recourse in secret data to reach the following conclusion: That over the immediate future both the United States and the Soviet Union will be continuing to equip themselves with nuclear weapons and with the means of delivery, whether by guided missiles or aircraft, adequate to constitute a grave deterrent to war by either side. The impact of this mutual growing capability is already having its effect on the international scene.

However, for the deterrent to be effective, other conditions must be met; among them are the following:

(1) The United States and its allies of the Free World must continue to maintain a military defensive and retaliatory power such that no increase in Sino-Soviet military power could lead the latter to believe that they had gained clear superiority over us.

(2) Regional strife among powers having no nuclear capabilities must be quarantined or limited. History has shown us small wars breed great wars and chain reactions with unforeseen consequences may result from them.

(3) There must be no doubt in the minds either of the leaders in Moscow or Peiping that the initiation by them of a war of aggression would be met with adequate force. Hence we must make the strength of our military position, and our readiness to use it in defense against communist aggression, so clear that there can be no misunderstanding on the part of the Soviet. Some wars have come from vicious intent and were a calculated act; more have come from miscalculations.

I doubt whether the leaders of international communism misunderstand or miscalculate our posture today. They must not do so tomorrow. The prevention of misunderstanding is a continuing task. We must not slip into an attitude of complacency which might lead the Communists to have doubts about our intentions. They must not be allowed to feel that the threat of nuclear blackmail could be used to push us out of any position that is vital to our security, on the mistaken theory that it is not worth the risk of a nuclear conflict.

Today the Soviets with a Gross National Product and an industrial capacity less than one-half of ours are nevertheless allocating to the national power sector of their economy, including military hardware and industrial plant for war purposes, an effort roughly equivalent to ours.

If they continue their industrial growth rate, at some eight to nine per cent per annum as is likely, the Soviets will be able, if they choose, substantially to increase their military effort.

Certainly until a system of controlled disarmament is devised, we cannot safely relax in the field of our military strength as the primary deterrent to the danger of communist aggression.

The secret of Soviet economic progress is simple. They plow back into investment a large and growing share of their total annual production. The Kremlin leaders direct about 30 per cent of GNP into capital outlays, while we in the United States are content with 17 - 20 per cent.

The commanding role of investment in Soviet economic growth is dramatically illustrated by their Seven Year Plan, which runs through 1965. Capital investment in industry for the year 1959, the initial year of the plan, will be approximately equal, measured in dollars, to industrial investment in the United States.

Furthermore, the Soviets absolute volume of investment in such productive areas as the iron, steel and nonferrous industries, as well as in machinery manufacturing, will be substantially greater than that of the United States.

These massive investment expenditures are being fed into an industrial system whose output in 1958 was only about 40 per cent of the United States. Under such high pressure fueling, the Soviet industrial plant can hardly fail to grow considerably faster than that of the United States.

Turning to the consumers field, the picture is entirely different. While they have been slightly increasing the production of consumer goods over the past few years, their consuming public fares badly in comparison with our own. In 1958, Soviet citizens had available for purchase about one-third of the total goods and services available to Americans. For example, the Soviets were then producing on an average one automobile for every 50 we produced.

While there are no adequate figures to compare our production of luxury goods with that of the Soviet, it is certainly true that here Soviet production would only be a small percentage of our own.

Certainly it is true that a major thrust of our economy is directed into the production of the consumer type of goods and services, which add little to the sinews of our national strength. On the other hand, the major thrust of Soviet economic development, and its high technological skills and resources, are directed toward specialized industrial, military and national power goals.

For a contestant engaged in a vital economic race with a lean and well-muscled opponent, we persist in carrying a prodigious burden of fat on our backs.

* * * * *

Soviet postwar economic expansion, as well as its advances in the military field, have also permitted the Kremlin to adopt an aggressive program in the less developed countries of the Free World. In these newly emergent and fragile nations, the Soviet leaders have been advancing their cause by a combination of economic penetration, political warfare, and subversion.

The basic strategy of international communism, with its primary emphasis on measures short of war, has remained remarkably unchanged since the death of Stalin. So too have its objectives.

These were never more bluntly stated than in Khrushchev's recent speeches.

Obviously referring to the phrase attributed to him, "We will bury you," he explained last summer that when he said that communism would be the graveyard of capitalism, he did not mean that communists would take shovels and start digging; "History," he said, "would take care of capitalists." They too, he suggested, would become museum pieces, and added that, "If there were a God and he could act, he would take a good broom and sweep you out."

Let us have a look at the brooms Khrushchev proposes to use.

* * * * *

First economic penetration of the uncommitted world.

Quick industrialization is the goal of the new and emerging countries, as well as of many of the older countries which have been backward industrially. It is no answer to such aspirations to suggest that the type of industrialization they want is premature, unwise or over-costly. They will continue to seek it.

The example of the Soviet Union attracts them. Here they see a nation which, in the course of 30 years since their revolutionary growing pains ended about 1928, has achieved second place in the world industrially.

The newly emerging States want results. The want them now. The Soviet promise them the moon with a few Migs thrown in. They understand full well that the Soviets first got a rocket to the moon and some of them are deluded by the belief that the Kremlin can also give them a painless industrial transformation. Soviet propaganda tells them this is so and that communism will deliver the goods. It is a potent argument. You can expect to see the Soviets continuing to use it in the four corners of the earth.

In several cases they have been able to get the jump on us; partly because of the procedures required under our laws; partly because we, rightly, have never conceived this to be a competition to see who can give the most the quickest but rather how one can best contribute to sound economic growth.

The Soviets, abetted by the Chinese Communists and their European Satellites, can easily maintain their present level of aid and trade and in the coming decade they may well divert larger absolute amounts to woo the uncommitted areas of the world. As the Soviet and Chinese Communist industrial production advances, the threat of the spread of communism through trade and aid into uncommitted areas of the world will be proportionately increased.

* * * * *

Another broom which international communism proposes to use against the Free World is political warfare.

Here they have an aggressive campaign based on a series of very positive programs with political, economic and cultural objectives. It involves the radio and other means of mass communication, as well as the written and spoken word; subtle political intrigue based on the control and manipulation of communist parties and communist fronts on a worldwide basis.

It includes the use of various "cover" organizations which pretend to represent youth, labor, professional groups and veterans. They become the agencies for spreading communist doctrine throughout the Free World. In their subversive arsenal, they also have organizations which use the slogans of "peace," friendship and coexistence.

This challenge is being pressed forward under the growing threat of Soviet industrial, scientific and technical advances and under the cover of the Kremlin's posture of coexistence. It is a challenge which is the more dangerous because it is cleverly and clandestinely conducted, and even the Communist role is concealed as far as possible.

To meet this threat we must understand it. To penetrate the subtleties of the Soviet political, economic, and psychological drive is harder to do than to understand the military threat. Weapons of war are visible, tangible, and comprehensible. The impact of an idea, of a subversive political movement, of a disguised economic policy is more subtle.

International communism is a ruthlessly proselytizing force. It seeks to make converts of men and women wherever the opportunity permits; just as it does not hesitate to make "prisoners" of them as it has done in Hungary. It has lost none of its faith in its worldwide mission, as outlined by Lenin and Stalin and vigorously proclaimed by Khrushchev as he left our shores a few weeks ago. This mission continues to be the domination of the entire Free World, with primary emphasis today on the new and uncommitted nations.

The communists have no reason to be confident that they have an adequate answer to our military retaliatory power. They do feel, however, that they still have the ability to close off their own frontiers, their air space and their rigidly controlled society to ideas from abroad. They have their Iron Curtains not only on their frontiers but within the country. They even try to draw down this Curtain within the minds of their own people.

Recently we see some evidence here and there of a slight raising of their curtain. There is somewhat less jamming and a wider play of American news items in the Soviet press. If this were to continue and develop it would be one of the most encouraging signs in our relations with the USSR. It would be an act, a deed on their part, as contrasted with mere pronouncements about coexistence.

* * * * *

A third broom the Soviets have been subtly using against us is the penetration and subversion of governments which do not "cooperate" with Moscow or Peiping. A classical example here was Czechoslovakia, more than ten years ago. The same techniques are used today. Popular front governments are still being planned by Moscow for several countries which today have close relations with us.

"Nationalism" as a slogan for the breaking of the ties of friendship between us and the countries of this Hemisphere was the line given the Latin American communist leaders who attended the 21st Party Congress in Moscow last February. Details for the execution of this policy were then outlined to these leaders and some of the fruits of this planning can be seen today in Panama, Cuba, and elsewhere in this Hemisphere.

It is Moscow's desire to move very secretly in this field and not to allow its hand to be shown as directly supporting local Communist parties either in this Hemisphere or elsewhere. Recently Peiping has not been so subtle. The Chinese Communists, who have the same long-range objectives as the Soviets, are acting in their own area of particular interest with a heavy, blundering hand. In fact, nationalistic feeling has been turning against Peiping in many countries around the periphery of Communist China. This must make the more professional operators in the Kremlin cringe.

* * * * *

In these comments, I have tried to give some idea of the nature and dimensions of the Soviet challenge in the military, political, and economic fields.

My conclusion is that even if a nuclear stalemate should tend to lessen the immediate danger of war, we would still be faced with a serious challenge. Furthermore, if, over the years the Soviet military outlays should take up a smaller ratio than today of their Gross National Product, the Kremlin might give added emphasis to its non-military penetration program. This would add to the danger of its policies under "peaceful coexistence" as the Kremlin now preaches it.

Certainly we have not answered the challenge if we limit ourselves merely to meeting the Kremlin's military threat.

These facts should bring us to a sober appraisal of the best means of marshalling our very great assets and capabilities -- in concert with our like-minded friends and allies. Today the Free World has a wide margin of industrial superiority over the Communist world. Are we applying this superiority in the proper way to the proper ends?

This we must do within the framework of freedom - not regimentation as practiced in the Soviet Union. It must be done with due regard for the legitimate aspirations of our people for a fuller life - not by asking them to accept the drab existence imposed on the Soviet people. However, as Mr. Herter said, the fateful competition with communism has a first claim on our energies and our interests and calls for subordination of our private interests to the paramount public interest.

You, yourselves, with your wide interests and responsibilities could do much to help make this society of ours become more responsive to the challenge of the day.

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Obama is engaged in revisionist history on the legality of the splitting of the
It Is Written

Obama is engaged in revisionist history on the legality of the splitting of the Crimea from the Ukraine.

If we follow the history of West Virginia we can see what has happened in the Crimea bears little difference from what happened at the ballot boxes in Wheeling Virginia in October of 1861.   SCOTUS said the West Virginia vote of 1861 was legal. So what has happened in the Crimea in not exactly new to the  U.S.   If we follow the logic SCOTUS used in the West Virginia case what happened in the Ukraine is legal via U.S. standards.

Obama needs to keep his nose out of Russian affairs,  the ballot box spoke in the Ukraine with out people being kept away from the polls as they were in the West Virginia vote.

Lets pay history a little visit to bring Obama up to speed on the subject.

On October 24, 1861, residents of thirty-nine counties in western Virginia approved the formation of a new Unionist state, West Virginia.

The United States Constitution says a new state must gain approval from the original state, which never occurred in the case of West Virginia. Since the Restored Government was considered the legal government of Virginia, it granted permission to itself on May 13, 1862, to form the state of West Virginia.

The creation of West Virginia is an event unparalleled in American history. Created in the midst of Civil War, it launched a storm of controversy that did not settle until a Supreme Court decision in 1871. At the core of the controversy was the constitutionality of its creation. In treading through the labyrinth of facts, myths, and legal arguments, the fact remains that the Constitution of the United States was wholly ignored in favor of political expediency.

The Constitution speaks clearly about the admission of new states. Article IV, section 3, clause 1 states:

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well of the Congress.

For West Virginia to be legally erected, the consent of Virginia, West Virginia, and Congress must be had. In August of 1861 a convention of western Virginians passed an ordinance to In May of 1862 the Restored Government of create a new state. Virginia gave its consent in taking its western section for the creation of West Virginia. Congress gave its formal consent to the division of Virginia in 1866.

The inclusion of the eastern counties of West Virginia provided a basis for legal challenge by Virginia after the Civil War. The counties of Jefferson, Berkeley, Morgan, Hampshire, Hardy, and Pendleton were included by popular vote in each of the counties. Three of the Eastern counties accepted inclusion in the new state in an election held on 3 April 1862. Morgan County approved inclusion on 5 May 1862. Berkeley and Jefferson Counties approved inclusion in May of 1863. The votes were certified by the Restored Virginia governor, Francis H. Pierpont.2

In 1866, Virginia attempted to regain jurisdiction over all of its former counties, but was rebuffed. Refusing to drop the issue, Virginia, in December of 1866, filed a claim against West Virginia to regain its jurisdiction in the counties of Berkeley and Jefferson. In the case of Virginia v. West Virginia, the United States Supreme Court, on 6 March 1871, denied Virginia's claim. Although the constitutionality of the creation of West Virginia was not directly addressed, legal opinion assumed that the Supreme Court tacitly implied West Virginia's legitimacy. 3

Benjamin R. Curtis, arguing for Virginia, chose to focus on the Consent Clause of the Constitution. Article l, Section 10, Clause 3 states: "No state shall, without the Consent of Congress, ? enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State ?" In 1862, the Virginia Legislature had already given its consent to the taking of its western counties to form a new state. Curtis maintained that the agreement made between Virginia and West Virginia was illegal because the consent of Congress had not been obtained prior to entering into the agreement. The belated approval of Congress in 1866 was moot because of the Virginia Legislature act in 1865 which withdrew Virginia's consent to the agreement. The reason given for Virginia's withdrawal of consent was that Governor Pierpont had been misled about the results of the election. 4

Arguing for West Virginia, Reverdy Johnson stated that the argument of Virginia, claiming improper certification of the election results by Governor Pierpont, was groundless citing the precedent of Knox County v. Aspinwall and others. Furthermore, Virginia was not a state according to the Reconstruction Act of Congress. Therefore, Virginia could not bring any suit before the Court. 5

Five years passed before a decision was made on Virginia's claim. When the case first appeared before the Court in 1866, a decision was postponed. The death of Justice Wayne had resulted in an equal division of opinion in the Court. During the next five years another vacancy on the bench occurred. In 1870, President Grant filled the vacancies with Justices William Strong and Joseph Bradley. Virginia immediately reopened the argument. 6

The Justices sitting on the bench in 1871 were Miller, Swayne, Strong, Bradley, Clifford, Davis, and Field. Chief Justice Chase and Justice Nelson were absent due to illness.7

Virginia's claim was denied. Speaking for the majority of Miller, Swayne, Strong, and Bradley, Justice Miller stated that Congress had given its implied consent in 1862, when it approved the West Virginia Constitution which described the agreement made with Virginia. The argument of misrepresented election results was rejected because of the lapse of time. The dissenting Justices Davis, Clifford, and Field maintained that Congress never gave its consent to the agreement until 1866, after Virginia had withdrawn from the contract. 8

There are several questions that arise in the aftermath of Virginia v. West Virginia. The case did not confront the question of the constitutionality of West Virginia. If Virginia was a seceded state, then how was the recognition of the Restored Government of Virginia justified? In recognizing the Restored Government, did the Federal government abide by its Constitutional mandate to guarantee a Republican form of government to every state? How could any election result be certified in the volatile atmosphere that existed in western Virginia during the Civil War? The answers can only be discovered by examining the events which led to the admission of West Virginia as the thirty-fifth state.

Virginia was on the brink of secession after the election of 1860. Her sister states to the south had seceded from the Union with the election of Lincoln. Toward the end of the year, Virginia called a special session of the legislature. Ostensibly to discuss the sale of a canal to a foreign country, the session spent most of its time debating secession for Virginia. The majority in the legislature was not for secession unless the Federal government resorted to coercion against the seceded states. The attempt by the Lincoln administration to aid Fort Sumter was seen by the legislature as coercion. Immediately after the shelling of Fort Sumter, the Virginia legislature passed an Ordinance of Secession. The ordinance was put to a vote throughout the state and overwhelmingly approved. On 17 April 1861 Virginia joined the Confederacy.

West of the Blue Ridge Mountains, the vote was not as unanimous. The socio-economic make-up of this region was quite different from the eastern part of the state. In order to understand the creation of a new state out of a portion of the "Old Dominion", understanding the character of this region is necessary. There were three cultural regions in Virginia in 1860. East of the Blue Ridge, the inhabitants were by birth Virginians and had inhabited this area for generations. Those of foreign birth were few. Agriculture, using slave labor, was the dominant economic activity. The area between the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains compose the second region. Living in this area were immigrant Pennsylvania Germans, Scots-Irish, and older eastern Anglo-Virginian families. Those of non-English background had been living for several generations in the region and had become more like the eastern Virginians. Like eastern Virginia, the agricultural economy depended upon slave labor. West of the Alleghenies, particularly in the border areas, were recent anti-slavery German immigrants and immigrants from the northern states. These groups were not sympathetic to slavery. The dominant economic activity, using free labor, was industrial production and mining.9

Economically, the central Ridge and Valley region was becoming more linked to the areas to the east. Agricultural produce was transported to markets in the east and south through the James River and Kanawha Canal, the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, and a railroad that was later called the Chesapeake and Ohio. The counties in the north of this region were commercially isolated from Richmond, but had direct connections to the East and West via the Baltimore and Ohio and the Winchester and Potomac Railroads. From 10% to 39% of the white families living in the Central region had slaves.10

West of the Alleghenies, there were few commercial links to the areas east of the Blue Ridge. This region was exclusively linked by railroads to northern and western cities, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad being the most important. The products from this region were primarily from industrial manufacturing and mining. Wheeling, located a short distance west of Pittsburgh on the Ohio River, was second only to Richmond in manufacturing. Three times more iron was mined in the West than in the East. Mason County alone accounted for one-third of the state's coal output. A growing oil and natural gas industry characterized the West by 1860, which attracted many northern capitalists. In the northwestern section, the growing ironworking industry also lured northern industrialists. The heavy concentration of immigrants from the Northern states, particularly in the Northern Panhandle area, and the very low incidence of slavery in the entire region contributed to the differences in socio-economic interests between the West and the areas to the east of the Alleghenies.11

By 1860, the northwestern region of Virginia had become isolated from the eastern portion. Commercial connections were closely tied to cities of the North and West. Agriculture was conducted on a much smaller scale than in the East, eliminating the need for slave labor. Commercial interest was in industrial development. Efficient, cheap transportation and banks were essential to development. Therefore, the primary legislative concern was in transportation improvement and in chartering banks. Western legislators were interested in the state authorizing and subsidizing road and canal construction. Eastern legislators began to heed the requests from their western colleagues during the 1850's. However, by 1860, development still lagged far behind that of the East.12

To many in the West, there was resentment toward the Eastern slaveholders, who controlled the legislature. They saw themselves as spectators in the commercial development of the state. In spite of the increased attention to western interests during the 1850's, in 1860 many Westerners felt the attention was "too little, too late."13 Arthur Boreman, of Wood County, best expressed the sentiment of the western section in 1863:

West Virginia should long since have had a separate State existence. The East has always looked on that portion of the State west of the mountains, as a sort of outside appendage?The unfairness and inequality of legislation is manifest on every stage of the statute book?

The Presidential election results of 1860 reveal an equal division of opinion regarding the position that the state should take in the growing sectional differences in the United States. Candidates from four competing parties were offered to the electorate. The newly formed Republican party was perceived as being controlled by Abolitionists, in spite of the attempt to moderate that impression by the nomination of Abraham Lincoln. The Democratic Party had split, forming Northern and Southern wings. The Northern candidate, Stephen A. Douglas, was seen as a traitor to the slave-interested South. The Southern wing nominated John C. Breckenridge. The platform of the Southern Democrats would appeal to slaveholders and states-rights advocates. The Constitutional Union Party's candidate was John Bell. An amalgamation of old Whigs and American/Know-Nothing Party adherents, the Constitutional Union Party appealed to those who supported the Union and Constitution but did not want to change the established social structure.15

In comparing the 1860 Presidential election results, there is little difference between the West and the East in the choice of candidates. For Breckenridge, present West Virginia polled

44.2%, present Virginia polled 44.6%. Bell was slightly more popular in the East, receiving 46%. In the West, he received 42%. Bell carried the state by a slim plurality of 358 votes.16

The election results in the fifty counties of western Virginia reveal the political and demographic diversity of the region. A total number of 50,049 votes were cast. Of that number, Lincoln received 1,402 or 3% of the vote, Bell received 20,977 or 42%, Breckenridge received 21,908 or 44%, and Douglas received 5,742 or 11% of the vote. Western Virginia was evenly split between the Southern Democrats and the Constitutional Unionists.17

Of the fifty counties, seven counties had cast votes for Lincoln. He received 20% of the vote in Brooke, 40% in Hancock, 21% in Ohio, 6% in Preston, 1% in Ritchie, 4% in Wood, and .04% in Marion Counties. In no county did he win a majority, though in Hancock County he lost to Breckenridge by a slim margin of 1%. Brooke, Preston, Ritchie, and Marion Counties voted strongly in favor of Breckenridge, Ohio County went to Bell, and Wood County was split between Bell and Breckenridge.18

Support for Lincoln in western Virginia indicates support from the capitalists in the region. It reflects capitalist support of free labor over slave labor. The concentrated Lincoln support in Brooke, Hancock, and Ohio Counties highlights the strong northern influence in these areas. The other counties that cast votes for Lincoln indicate less significant support for the Republicans. Preston, Ritchie, Marion, and Wood Counties were located on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was vitally significant to the economy of northwestern Virginia. It was the only route for industrial and mining products to be transported to markets. The inclusion of the railroad within the boundaries of West Virginia was imperative for the Capitalists of the region. The desire to include the counties east of the Alleghenies into West Virginia kept the railroad in Union territory.19

It was men with industrial interests that led the movement to separate western Virginia from its eastern portion. They stood to lose the most from a separation from the Union. Capital was needed to fund industrial expansion, mineral exploration, and mining. Bank loans and stock investment were the sources of capital used. Northerners invested substantial amounts of capital in Western Virginia industry and mineral exploitation. If Virginia seceded, stock investment and banking activity would be severely limited or totally eliminated. Transportation of products to markets would be severely limited, particularly if civil war broke out. When the Virginia Legislature passed the Ordinance For Secession on 17 April 1861, western Virginia leaders responded to the crisis facing their industries.

Within thirty days after the legislature passed the Ordinance, Unionists in Preston, Monongalia, Ohio, Taylor, Mason, Wood, Jackson, and Wetzel Counties held conventions to express opposition to the Ordinance. The Clarksburg Convention held 22 April 1861 in Harrison County, called upon men to assemble ". . . on the 13th day of May next, to consult and determine upon such action as the people of Northwestern Virginia should take in the present fearful emergency . . ."20

Not all men of Harrison County were opposed to secession. On 26 April 1861, a Southern Rights Convention was held in Clarksburg. The Convention called upon western Virginians to support their sister states in the South. They declared their opposition to coercion by the Federal government. They did not advocate war, but simply stated that ". . . we want the great heart of the people to beat audibly . . ."21

The First Wheeling Convention met on 13 May 1861. The Convention debated the feasibility of erecting a new state. John Carlile of Harrison County led the debate in favor of the measure. Waitman T. Willey of Monongalia opposed the proposal, maintaining that there was a difference between rebellion and legal resistance. He intended to make any action at least appear legal. Willey's position carried the majority. However before adjournment, the Committee of State and Federal Relations, chaired by lawyer/industrialist Francis H. Pierpont,22 submitted a report to the convention. It stated:

1. The policy of state authorities was unwise and utterly subversive and destructive of our interests and efforts should be made to defeat the ordinance of secession in the special referendum.

2. If people of the state should ratify secession, a special election should be held in the northwest counties to choose delegates to meet at a second Wheeling Convention.

3. People of northwest counties might appeal to Virginia to let them leave peacefully.23

The convention finished its business by calling for a second Wheeling convention to assemble on the 11th of June.

On 23 May 1861 the Virginia Ordinance of Secession was overwhelmingly ratified by the people of Virginia, 125,950 to 20,373.24 Looking back to the 1860 election, there were a total of 50,049 eligible voters in western Virginia. In the vote on the Ordinance of Secession, if one were to assume that all of the negative votes were cast in western Virginia, then less than half of the people in western Virginia could have possibly voted against secession. A slight majority of voters in western Virginia may have approved of Virginia's secession.

The delegates attending the Second Wheeling Convention do not appear to be valid representatives of their districts. The convention opened with 100 delegates attending from thirty-four counties. More than one-third of the delegates were former members of the Virginia assembly. Several were sent by military authorities and some were self-appointed. There were no delegates from the northeastern counties of Hardy, Hampshire, and Jefferson; counties that were to be incorporated later into West Virginia.25

By declaration, the Second Wheeling Convention appointed itself the legitimate government of Virginia. After electing a president of the convention, Arthur I. Boreman, the assembly began its self-appointed task to reorganize the government of Virginia.

The first measure taken by the convention was the signing of a declaration of rights. It declared that all state offices were vacant, all actions of the General Assembly in Richmond were null and void, and acts to force ". . . the people of Virginia to separate from and wage war against the government of the United States and against citizens of neighboring states . . ." were declared to be without authority.26 On 19 June 1861, the convention adopted "An Ordinance for the Reorganization of the State Government". The next day, it elected Francis H. Pierpont as the new governor of Virginia. The new legislature was to be composed of all loyal individuals who had been elected in the May general election.27 Having accomplished this "coup d'etat", the convention adjourned.

The first step to create a "legal" new state had been taken. A state government that would voluntarily give up a portion of its territory for the establishment of a new state had been organized. The next step would be to create the new state. As called for at the Second Wheeling Convention, the Restored Virginia Legislature met on 1 July 1861. Its primary task was to fill all government offices and U.S. Congressional seats. The assembly accomplished its goal in short order, electing a Secretary of the Commonwealth, an Auditor of the Public Accounts, and a Treasurer. John S. Carlile and Waitman T. Willey were elected to fill the U.S. Senate seats of Virginia left vacant after Virginia's secession. They, along with previously chosen Representatives Brown, Whaley, and Blair, left immediately for Washington. By taking their seats in Congress as representatives from Virginia, the Federal Government recognized

the Restored Government as the rightful representative of the people of Virginia.28

At this point, the United States government failed in its Constitutional duty. Article IV, Section 4 of the Constitution of the United States asserts that "The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government ." The Congress of the United States seated representatives of a state, who were designated by a largely self-appointed legislature; a legislature that nominated the officers of that state. Furthermore, the two Wheeling Conventions that initiated the restoration of a Unionist Virginia were composed of representatives of dubious legitimacy. Clearly, a Republican form of government for Virginians was not guaranteed.

The Convention reassembled on the 6 August 1861 to form a new state. By August 20, an ordinance to create a new state, called Kanawha (later changed to West Virginia), was adopted. The boundaries of Kanawha were to be all of Virginia west of the Allegheny Mountains. A provision to include the counties of Jefferson, Berkeley, Morgan, Hampshire, Hardy, and Pendleton by popular vote in each county was added later. The Convention adjourned after calling for a popular election to ratify the ordinance and calling for a Constitutional Convention to be held on the 26th of November, in the event of the ordinance's ratification.29

The remaining steps to United States recognition of West Virginia progressed without difficulty over the next nine months. On October 24 the inhabitants of Restored Virginia ratified the ordinance to create a new state, 18,408 to 781. The work began on a Constitution for the new state in November and was completed in February 1862. The citizens ratified the Constitution in April by an overwhelming vote of 18,862 to 514. The Restored Virginia assembly met in May and gave its consent to the formation of West Virginia within its jurisdiction.30

The Union Army was an essential ingredient in the process culminating in the creation of West Virginia. Between the 23rd of May and the 11th of June, Union troops under General George B. McClellan occupied northwestern Virginia, thus assuring the election of delegates for the Second Wheeling Convention.31 In a letter of 27 February 1862 to restored Virginia Governor Francis Pierpont, from Arthur Boreman, later elected the first governor of West Virginia, Boreman expressed the danger the Virginia government was in from disloyal speakers circulating around the state, inciting people to resist the action of the assembly. He also stated, "... it is not safe for a loyal man to go into the interior and out of sight of the Ohio." He elaborated further that the Union Army was necessary to maintain loyalty and hinted at its use to suppress the disloyal speakers.32 The Union Army was present in the area, east of the Alleghenies, to be included into West Virginia by popular vote. The 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry, Company "A", was camped in Romney, Hampshire County at the time the county was to vote on the question of its inclusion into the new state. The cavalry company's presence may have had a passive influence on the election results. In a letter to his wife, dated 3 May 1862, Private Aungier Dobbs wrote: "... we travel about here without firearms with no fears of being molested... the people is satisfied they are whiped but believe they were right ... "

Union troops were present in May of 1863 when the vote for inclusion was held in Jefferson and Berkeley Counties. These counties voted for inclusion by a stunning margin. The vote in Berkeley was 645 to 7. The vote in Jefferson was 248 to 2.34 Taking a look at the total number voting from each county in the 1860 Presidential election, a great number of people "disappeared". The 1860 total vote in Berkeley was 1,849; in Jefferson it was 1,857.35 The presence of Union troops may have dampened voter enthusiasm.

The question of admitting West Virginia as a new state came before Congress in May of 1862. The Senate voted in July for admission, 23 to 12. The House approved admission in December, 96 to 55; but not without debate.36

The debate in both Houses show that Congressmen were not unaware of the doubtful constitutional grounds for admission.

Kentucky Senator Powell expressed his opinion:

Out of 160 counties that comprise the state of Virginia, less than one-fourth have assumed to act for the entire state, even within the boundaries of the new state more than half of the voters have declined to take part in the election. No Senator could pretend to claim that even a 3d part of the people of Virginia ever had a thing to do with rendering their assent to the making of this state within the territorial limits of the ancient commonwealth.

Representative John Segar of Virginia, the only member of his delegation in the House who opposed admission asserted: "...there is no evidence that the majority of people within the counties which were to compose the new state had ever given its assent to its formation." He called the statehood bill a punitive measure against Virginia. Representative James Blaine of Maine pointed out that "?essentially the government of West Virginia was giving permission to the formation of a new state of West Virginia."39 Even after West Virginia was admitted to the Union, Senator Davis of Kentucky refused to approve seating the new West Virginia representatives stating: "The present state of West Virginia ... is a flagrant violation of the Constitution."40

Supporting the measure, Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania expressed his opinion that:

We may admit West Virginia as a new state, not by virtue of any provision of the constitution, but under an absolute power which the laws of war give us. I shall vote for this bill upon that theory, for I will not stultify myself by supposing that we have any warrant in the constitution for this proceeding.41

After Congress passed the bill in early December, the bill went to President Abraham Lincoln for approval. In a memo to his Cabinet, dated 23 December 1862, Lincoln requested them to write their opinions on the admission of the new state. He requested them to respond to two queries:

Is the said Act constitutional?

Is the said Act expedient?42

Cabinet members Blair, Bates and Welles urged Lincoln to veto the bill. Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles's diary entry dated December 4, 1862, is a good representation of the negative arguments:

This is not the time to divide the commonwealth. The requirements of the Constitution are not complied with, as they in good faith should be, by Virginia, by the proposed new State, nor by the United States.

Again, on December 29:

Stanton...expressed surprise that I should oppose the division, for he thought it politic and wise to plant a free State south of the Ohio. I thought our duties Constitutional, not experimental...mere expediency should not override constitutional obligations. This action was not predicated on the consent of the people of Virginia, legitimately expressed; was arbitrary and without proper authority...43

In the affirmative were Chase, Stanton, and Seward. A summary of Chase's opinion provides a good representation of the main arguments for approving the bill. In his reply, he believed the Wheeling government spoke for the entire state, that in insurrection, those who remain faithful "...must be taken to constitute the State." The bill was expedient, because for the loyal men, admission was "of vital importance" for their safety and welfare. Admission would expand the emancipation process to areas not included in the Emancipation Proclamation. He may have been thinking of creating precedents for the future.44

On December 31, 1862, Lincoln signed the bill for the admission of West Virginia into the Union. At the same time he gave his reasons for signing the bill:

The opposing argument that the Restored Government of Virginia was illegitimate because all qualified voters did not vote was refuted by saying that the electoral practice in elections are decided by those who do vote.

He implied that those in open rebellion should not be considered because they chose not to vote.

The consent clause in the Constitution which, in part, states, " . . . without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned . . ." does not refer to the consent of a new state. The plurals on "legislature" and "state" were used in contemplation of several states being sectioned for a new state.

"I believe the admission . . . is expedient." He stated that to veto the measure would mean the loss of support for the Union in West Virginia. The United States owed it to the steadfastly loyal men who said admission was ". . . a matter of life or death". By admitting West Virginia, it turned slave to free soil and was an "irrevocable encroachment upon the cause of rebellion."45

On 20 June 1863, the date officially given as the birth of West Virginia, Arthur I. Boreman was inaugurated as the first governor. The 1866 court challenge initiated by Virginia came at a critical juncture in the aftermath of the Civil War. Throughout the Reconstruction period, the Congress's policies were frequently under attack, both in and out of court. There was an undercurrent of siege mentality pervasive in Congress. To bolster its policy, Congress was willing to undertake whatever measures were necessary to preserve its Reconstruction policy.

The appointment of Supreme Court Justices sympathetic to Reconstruction policy was important to stave the growing anti-reconstruction sentiment. During debate to approve the appointment of Justices to fill two vacancies in the Supreme Court, a letter dated 28 December 1869 written by Senator Lot Morrill of Maine expressed the danger of appointing unsympathetic Justices: "...who can predict the mischief that may come to the nation from unfriendly interpretation of the war & reconstruction measures of Congress?"46 William Strong and Joseph Bradley were promising protectors of Congressional Reconstruction. They were confirmed in their appointment to the Supreme Court in 1870. Virginia's bid to repossess its severed territory was bound to fail.

The creation of West Virginia was an illegal act. Aside from being expressly forbidden in the Constitution, Congress and Lincoln failed to perform their constitutional duty to guarantee a Republican form of government, by both its recognition of the Restored Virginia government and its admission of West Virginia. The arbitrary and revolutionary natures underpinning both state governments were well known to all parties. Yet expedient consideration admitted West Virginia rather than constitutional consideration.

 

ENDNOTES

1. Wilson, James Q. American Government: Institutions and Policies. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1980. 62223.

2. Cometti, Elizabeth and Festus P. Summers eds. The ThirtyFifth State: A Documentary History of West Virginia. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library, 1966. Document #132.

3. Ibid

4. Fairman, Charles. History of the Supreme Court of the United States: Reconstruction and Reunion; 1864-88, Part I. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1971. 622-23.

5. Ibid, 623-26.

6. Ibid

7. Ibid, 620.

8. Ibid, 627.

9. Shanks, Henry T. The Secession Movement in Virginia, 1847-1861. Richmond: Garrett and Massie, 1934. 6-9.

10. Ibid

12. Ibid

13. Ibid

14. Cometti, Document #105

15. Shanks, 109-15.

16. Ibid, 115-17.

17. Cometti, Document #71.

18. Ibid, extrapolation.

19. Ibid, Document #78, #94.

20. Lewis, Virgil A. "How West Virginia Became A Member of the Federal Union, A Reprint". West Virginia History. 30 (October 1969): 598.

21. Cometti, Document #72

22. Ambler, Charles H. Francis H. Pierpont: Union War Governor of Virginia and Father of West Virginia. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1937. 31

23. Winston, Sheldon. "Statehood For West Virginia: An Illegal Act?". West Virginia Histo ry. 30 (July 1969): 531.

24. Ibid

25. Cometti, Document #82

26. Winston, 531.

27. Lewis, 600-02.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. Ibid.

31. Cometti, Document #82

32. Woodward, I.A. ed. "Arthur Ingraham Boreman In Fear of the Future of the New State". West Virginia History. 34 (October 1973): 382-88.

33. Haas, Ralph. Dear Esther: The Civil War Letters of Private Aungier Dobbs; Centerville, Pennsylvania; Company "A", The Ringgold Cavalry Company; 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry; June 29, 1861 to October 31, 1865. Apollo, PA: Closson Press, 1991. Letter date: May 3, 1862.

34. Cometti, Document #132

35. Ibid, #71.

36. Lewis, 604-05.

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid.

39. Ibid, 533.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid.

42. Basler, Roy P. ed. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1953. v.6. Dec. 23, 1862.

43. Beale, Howard K. ed. Diary of Gideon Welles; Secretary of the

Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1960. v.l. Dec. 4, 1862; Dec. 29, 1862.

44. Blue, Frederick J. Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univesity Press, 1987. 195.

45. Basler, Dec. 31, 1862.

46. Fairman, 730-31.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PRIMARY

Basler, Roy P. ed. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1953. v.6.

Beale, Howard K. ed. Diary of Gideon Welles; Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1960. v.l.

Cometti, Elizabeth and Festus P. Summers eds. The ThirtyFifth State: A Documentary History of West Virginia. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library, 1966.

Haas, Ralph ed. Dear Esther: The Civil War Letters of Private Aungier Dobbs; Centerville, Pennsylvania; Company "A", The Ringgold Cavalry Company; 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry; June 29, 1861 to October 31, 1865. Apollo, PA: Closson Press, 1991.

Simpson, Brooks D., LeRoy P. Graff, John Muldowny eds. Advice After A pomattox: Letters To Andrew Johnson, 1865-1866. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

Woodward, I.A. ed. "Arthur Ingraham Boreman In Fear of the Future of the New State". West Virginia History. 34 (October 1973): 382-88.

SECONDARY

Ambler, Charles H. Francis H. Pierpont: Union War Governor of Virginia and Father of West Virgina. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1937.

Barney, William L. Battleground for the Union: The Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction, 1848-1877. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.

Blue, Frederick J. Salmon P. Chase: A Life In Politics. Kent, Ohio: The Kent State University Press, 1987.

Fairman, Charles. History of the Supreme Court of the United States: Reconstruction and Reunion; 1864-88, Part One. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1971. v.6.

Lewis, Virgil A. "How West Virginia Became A Member of the Federal Union, A Reprint". West Virginia History. 30 (October 1969): 598-606.

Rice, Otis K. West Virginia: A History. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1985.

Shanks, Henry T. The Secession Movement in Virginia, 18471861. Richmond: Garrett and Massie, 1934.

Silver, David M. Lincoln's Supreme Court. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1956.

Wilson, James Q. American Government: Institutions and Policies. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1980.

Winston, Sheldon. "Statehood For West Virginia: An Illegal Act?". West Virginia History. 30(July 1969): 530-34.

Woodward, Isaiah Alfonso. "Arthur Ingraham Boreman: A Biography, Part I". West Virginia History. 31 (October 1970): 20669.

________ West Virginia and Its Struggle For Statehood, 1861-1863. Baltimore: Wolk Publishing Company, 1954.

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Posted by editor on Sunday, March 16 @ 21:24:38 MST (2244 reads)
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Head Of Gestapo buried in Jewish Cemetery
It Is Written

Head Of Gestapo buried in Jewish Cemetery

Head of Gestapo buried in Jewish cemetery

Gestapo Chief Heinrich Mueller, in his uniform (left) and in a trenchcoat (right), circa 1943

The brutal head of Hitler’s Gestapo who was also one of the evil architects of the Holocaust has been buried since 1945 in a Jewish cemetery in Berlin, according to a German newspaper.

Heinrich Mueller – known as “Gestapo-Mueller” during World War II – was long thought to have survived the war.

But new documents and evidence show he was buried in a common grave in a Jewish cemetery in central Berlin, according to the newspaper Bild.

“Mueller didn’t survive the end of the war,” Johannes Tuchel, head of the Memorial to the German Resistance, told the paper.

“His body was interred in 1945 in the Jewish cemetery in Berlin-Mitte in a mass grave.”

The news infuriated Dieter Graumann, a leader of Germany’s Jewish community.

Modal Trigger

“That one of the most brutal Nazi sadists is buried in a Jewish cemetery is a distasteful monstrosity. The memory of the victims is being treated here with contempt,” he told Bild.

Mueller attended the Wannsee Conference near Berlin in January 1942 at which the “Final Solution,” a plan to exterminate Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe, was hatched.



Posted by editor on Thursday, October 31 @ 12:50:34 MST (2381 reads)
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Was Face Book Hacked Again?? Was it Obama???
It Is Written Was Facebook down this am {6:55} because it was hacked again?

Was Facebook down this am {6:55} because it was hacked again?

 What FB said:

Account Temporarily Unavailable.

Your account is currently unavailable due to a site issue. We expect this to be resolved shortly. Please try again in a few minutes.

Posted by editor on Thursday, August 29 @ 04:23:02 MST (2360 reads)
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Wag the Dog ~ Obama, not Assad, Responsible For Chemical Attacks In Syria?
It Is Written

Countless losses: Families attempt to identify the bodies of Syrian fighters shot and dumped in a river in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo today

Wag the Dog ~ Obama, not Assad, Responsible For Chemical Attacks In Syria?

Mouse over and Click the Mail's logo to see its post

Yes, it appears from leaked emails from defense contractor that refers to chemical weapons saying 'the idea is approved by Washington'

This is in spite of the warning Obama issued to Syrian president Bashar al-Assad last month that use of chemical warfare was 'totally unacceptable'

Leaked emails have allegedly proved that the White House gave the green light to a chemical weapons attack in Syria that could be blamed on Assad's regime and in turn, spur international military action in the devastated country.

A report released on Monday contains an email exchange between two senior officials at British-based contractor Britam Defence where a scheme 'approved by Washington' is outlined explaining that Qatar would fund rebel forces in Syria to use chemical weapons.

Barack Obama made it clear to Syrian president Bashar al-Assad last month that the U.S. would not tolerate Syria using chemical weapons against its own people.

Scroll down for video

*


War games: An explosion in the Syrian city of Homs last month. It has been now been suggested that the U.S. backed the use of chemical weapons to spur international military intervention

War games: An explosion in the Syrian city of Homs last month. It has been now been suggested that the U.S. backed the use of chemical weapons to spur international military intervention

*

According to Infowars.com, the December 25 email was sent from Britam's Business Development Director David Goulding to company founder Philip Doughty. 

It reads: 'Phil... We’ve got a new offer. It’s about Syria again. Qataris propose an attractive deal and swear that the idea is approved by Washington.

'We’ll have to deliver a CW to Homs, a Soviet origin g-shell from Libya similar to those that Assad should have.

'They want us to deploy our Ukrainian personnel that should speak Russian and make a video record.

'Frankly, I don’t think it’s a good idea but the sums proposed are enormous. Your opinion?

'Kind regards, David.'

Britam Defence had not yet returned a request for comment to MailOnline.

Enlarge Leaked: The email was allegedly sent from a top official at a British defense contractor regarding a 'Washington approved' chemical attack in Syria which could be blamed on Assad's regime

Leaked: The email was allegedly sent from a top official at a British defense contractor regarding a 'Washington approved' chemical attack in Syria which could be blamed on Assad's regime

The emails were released by a Malaysian hacker who also obtained senior executives resumés and copies of passports via an unprotected company server, according to Cyber War News.

Dave Goulding's Linkedin profile lists him as Business Development Director at Britam Defence Ltd in Security and Investigations. A business networking profile for Phil Doughty lists him as Chief Operationg Officer for Britam, United Arab Emirates, Security and Investigations.

The U.S. State Department had not returned a request for comment on the alleged emails to MailOnline today at time of publication. 

However the use of chemical warfare was raised at a press briefing in D.C. on January 28.

A spokesman said that the U.S. joined the international community in 'setting common redlines about the consequences of using chemical weapons'.

Countless losses: Families attempt to identify the bodies of Syrian fighters shot and dumped in a river in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo today

Countless losses: Families attempt to identify the bodies of Syrian fighters shot and dumped in a river in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo today

 

Devastation: People gather at a site hit by what activists said was missiles fired by a Syrian Air Force fighter jet from forces loyal to Assad, at the souk of Azaz, north of Aleppo on January 13

Devastation: People gather at a site hit by what activists said was missiles fired by a Syrian Air Force fighter jet from forces loyal to Assad, at the souk of Azaz, north of Aleppo on January 13

A leaked U.S. government cable revealed that the Syrian army more than likely had used chemical weapons during an attack in the city of Homs in December. 

The document, revealed in The Cable, revealed the findings of an investigation by Scott Frederic Kilner, the U.S. consul general in Istanbul, into accusations that the Syrian army used chemical weapons in the December 23 attack.

 

 

An Obama administration official who had access to the document was reported as saying: 'We can't definitely say 100 per cent, but Syrian contacts made a compelling case that Agent 15 was used in Homs on Dec. 23.'

Mr Kilner's investigation included interviews with civilians, doctors, and rebels present during the attack, as well as the former general and head of the Syrian WMD program, Mustafa al-Sheikh.

Dr. Nashwan Abu Abdo, a neurologist in Homs, is certain chemical weapons were used. He told The Cable: 'It was a chemical weapon, we are sure of that, because tear gas can't cause the death of people.'

Threats: Barack Obama said during a speech last month that if Syria used chemical weapons against its own people it would be 'totally unacceptable'

Threats: Barack Obama said during a speech last month that if Syria used chemical weapons against its own people it would be 'totally unacceptable'

 

Tyrant: Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad, pictured with his wife Asma, is facing increasing international pressure over his brutal massacre of his own people

Tyrant: Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad, pictured with his wife Asma, is facing increasing international pressure over his brutal massacre of his own people

Eye witness accounts from the investigation revealed that a tank launched chemical weapons and caused people exposed to them to suffer nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, delirium, seizures, and respiratory distress.

The symptoms suggest that the weaponized compound Agent-15 was responsible. Syria denied using chemical weapons and said it would never use them against citizens.

Speaking to Pentagon reporters at the time, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said his biggest concern was how the U.S. and allies would secure the chemical and biological weapons sites scattered across Syria and ensure the components don't end up in the wrong hands if the regime falls, particularly under violent conditions.

Government forces and rebels in Syria have both been accused by human rights groups of carrying out brutal warfare in the 22-month-old conflict, which has claimed more than 60,000 lives.

WARNING GRAPHIC CONTENT :  'SYRIAN REBELS TESTING CHEMICAL WEAPONS ON RABBITS'

 
Posted by editor on Friday, August 23 @ 02:13:01 MST (2387 reads)
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Federal Felon Michael Vick* Was selected to be 'the' keynote speaker at Virginia
It Is Written

Federal Felon Michael Vick*

[the holding of the Federal court says so, does it not?]

Was selected to be 'the' keynote speaker at Virginia Beach’s Landstown High School, begs the question, Why?

Vick is an example of someone that should be held in great esteem?

 

[*Background: The NFL reinstated convicted felon and dog torturer Michael Vick. That move put yet another convicted criminal in a business heavy with felons.

Vick spent 18 months of a 23-month sentence at Leavenworth federal prison for dog fighting charges.

When police raided Vick’s house in Surry County, VA in 2007, they found 65 dogs (nearly all pit bulls), a dog-fighting pit, blood-stained carpets, and various equipment commonly used in dog fighting.

One of the items found on Vick’s property was a ‘rape stand’ which is a device in which female dogs are strapped into and restrained, to allow a male dog to breed with her.

According to the federal indictment, when dogs at Vick’s Bad Newz Kennels lost a fight, or failed to perform well in ‘test matches,’ they were routinely killed by methods including electrocution, hanging, drowning, and in at least one case by "slamming" the dog’s body onto the concrete floor.

In one session in April 2007, at least eight dogs were killed through these methods.

Vick took part in these executions along with his partners Purnell Peace, and Quanis Phillips. The indictment detailed a March 2003 incident, in which a female pit bull who had just lost a match was killed.

Vick and Peace decided to kill her by "wetting the dog down with water and electrocuting her."

Despite these ghastly facts, the NFL has decided to welcome back Michael Vick.

Goodell told reporters: "I do recognize that some will never forgive him for what he did. . I hope that the public will have a chance to understand his position as I have."

To their credit, the New York Giants, the New York Jets, and the Dallas Cowboys would not take Vick. http://www.examiner.com/article/dog-killer-michael-vick-will-join-other-felons-the-nfl]

The Virginian Pilot's [the all new Journal & Guide] Kerry Dougherty's  Point, "Vick's pulse is not enough to qualify him for black history talk" is well taken!

Dougherty's adherence to the rules of political correctness and/or polite society seem to this commentator prevented her from asking and/or point out; 

black history month is racist;

black history month is racebaiting;

"There is another class of coloured people who make a business of keeping the troubles, the wrongs, and the hardships of the Negro race before the public. Having learned that they are able to make a living out of their troubles, they have grown into the settled habit of advertising their wrongs — partly because they want sympathy and partly because it pays. Some of these people do not want the Negro to lose his grievances, because they do not want to lose their jobs." 

Booker T. Washington
Page 430
Volume 1, 1900 Autobiographical Writings
The Booker T. Washington Papers
University of Illinois Press, 1972
Louis R. Harlan, Editor
John W. Blallingame, Assistant Editor

http://www.historycooperative.org/btw/Vol.1/html/430.html

black history month is revisionist history;

black history month is a gag of political correctness. 

************************************************************************************

Posted by editor on Friday, February 22 @ 07:17:40 MST (3743 reads)
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The Dark Side Of Obama, & We Ain't talking Skin Colour
It Is Written

The Answers to Many of Your Questions Is Found In

"Barack Hussein Obama, The Unauthorized Diary of a Muslim President"

 

"Barack Hussein Obama,The Unauthorized Diary of a Muslim President", takes a hard look at how Barack Hussein Obama is aiding and abetting Islamic supremacists to "destroy America from within, by our own hands". 

The book reveals the lie behind the phrase "Islam is a religion of peace". 

Obama's "fundamental transformation" of the USA is revealed to be the destruction of the U.S. Constitution and the total elimination of the rights and freedoms Americans have lived with for over 200 years. 

"Barack Hussein Obama, The Unauthorized Diary of a Muslim President" reveals an all-encompassing conspiracy to:

 • Destroy the balance of power between the three divisions of the federal government, by illegitimately usurping power from the Supreme Court and Congress, and bolstering the powers of the Presidency to never-before-heard-of levels. 

• Allow infiltration into the highest levels of government by communists, socialists and Muslim extremists, including into positions of national security and defense. 

• Create massive and bitter divisions between all segments of our society. Rich, poor and middle class are pitted against each other. Divisions along racial, ethnic and gender lines are the worst they’ve been in years. 

• Secretly give away the sovereignty of the United States to the United Nations, or some other One-World-Government. 

• Grow the federal government so far and so fast that State’s right are being left in the dust, as are parental rights and the family as a whole. 

Encourage illegal immigration of Muslim jihadist activists and weapons [Fast and Furious] through our borders, while using the Department of Justice to STOP individual states from protecting their own borders. 

• Allow Muslim supremacists to dictate to our law enforcement agencies what they can and can’t say in their training.

The divisiveness and rage among groups of citizens that is being fostered and encouraged by this administration simply makes us more vulnerable to attack from outside forces. 

And when those outside forces have already successfully infiltrated our own government, with the tacit approval of Barack Obama, we can see that a fuse is waiting to be lit. 

When the explosion occurs, America as we know it will be devastated unless Americans become informed in time and unite to stop the destruction of the USA as a sovereign nation. 

Why would Democrats claim a phony "War on Women", instead of publicizing the REAL War on Women being waged by Muslims? 

Why have Americans been told by this administration that the "War on Terror" is over when terrorists are continuing to plot our overthrow by violence and stealth? 

Why is so much information about Barack Hussein Obama still unavailable for inspection, four years after the election?

Did Obama go to Harvard? 

Where are the grades? 

Where is the birth certificate? 

Is Obama's grandmother in Kenya just a confused old lady? 

Can Obama be a Muslim and a communist? 

What exactly does "fundamental transformation" mean? 

These questions and more are answered in "Barack Hussein Obama The Muslim President, The Unauthorized Diary of a Muslim President", which was written for families, neighbors and all patriotic Americans. 

It's time to wake up, become informed, join forces with like-minded citizens, and take action to save our great nation. 

God Bless America! 

"Barack Hussein Obama, The Unauthorized Diary of a Muslim President" is full of high-level information presented in plain speech. 

It also contains some common sense, practical ways of interpreting what a "fundamental transformation" of the USA really means to our Liar-in-Chief, Barack Hussein Obama.

A Recommended HCN resource Material:

 

Posted by Editor on Friday, January 18 @ 16:13:29 MST (2313 reads)
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Jews to return to Egypt and leave Israel to the Palestinians`Obama Agenda
It Is Written

Moslem Agenda

Obama Agenda

Jews to return to Egypt and leave Israel to the Palestinians

Essam al-Erian, an advisor to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi, resigned days after calling for Jews to return to Egypt and leave Israel to the Palestinians.

Erian, deputy head of the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party, reportedly resigned Monday, saying he could not hold down the leadership position in his party along with being an advisor working in the Parliament.

Every Egyptian has a right to live in his country, Erian is quoted as saying in an interview late last month with Dream TV. He also reportedly said that the Jewish presence in Israel contributes to the occupation of Arab land.

Egyptian Jews should refuse to live under "a brutal, bloody and racist occupation stained with war crimes against humanity," Erian said during the television interview. He also questioned why former Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser expelled the Jews from Egypt in the first place.

"We welcome the resignation of Essam al-Erian," said Abraham H. Foxman, national director of the Anti-Defamation League. "We hope that President Morsi and other Egyptian government leaders will now make it clear that the defamation of Israel and Jews has no place in the country’s national dialogue."

On Jan. 4, Foxman wrote to the Egyptian Ambassador in Washington, Mohamed M. Tawfik, calling on the government to take action in the wake of Erian’s remarks, which ADL described as "outrageous and alarming."

"This broad-brush negative stereotype of Jews by a senior Egyptian official was inappropriate, unacceptable and raises serious questions about the attitudes of some of Egypt’s leaders towards Jews," said Mr. Foxman. "Essam al-Erian’s resignation should be an example of the consequences for leaders who express such attitudes."

 

Read more: http://forward.com/articles/168909/egyptian-quits-after-calling-for-return-of-jews/#ixzz2HONIrwMH



Posted by annoregni on Tuesday, January 08 @ 07:06:21 MST (2108 reads)
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