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Voter News and Issues ~ Helpcom.net - Blacks and the leftovers
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Blacks and the leftovers
Posted on Saturday, February 23 @ 11:42:30 MST by editor

Class  Warfare New Page 1

 

Darryl  B. Petti

Slave owners used to give their Black/Negro slaves the parts of a cow or pig that their families didn't want.

The slaves would have to make do with whatever crap they were given.

It has not changed much since 1876

After slavery, these democrat party, KKK members still didn't want Blacks/Negros to have any more than what they were given and they dared them to complain.

Blacks/Negros who vote for today's modern hoodless democrats have come a long way.

Blacks/Negros must still be satisfied with scraps and left-overs from the democratic party.

But at least now they [Blacks/Negros] have the right to complain.

[Yes] they have the right to complain and [yes] be [they are mostly] ignored.

[Akin to] The right to sit at the table but not eat.

The right to vote but only if it's for the people that ignore them.

Blacks/Negros ..you've come a long way to get to nowhere.

The type of PR out there that we can not determine who put it out, or the real intent.

***Note this editor added the words in []s and Negros. Blacks is a political term while Negro* is a term** that has much said about it.

*From a 1911 publication of the Catholic Church [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12627a.htm]: The term negro, derived from the Spanish and the Latin words meaning "black" (negro; niger), may be applied to a large portion of mankind, but it is more strictly confined to certain peoples and tribes of Central Africa and their descendants in various parts of the world.

The Bluemback fivefold division of mankind [Can not find any other source for this other than this piece] considers the negro in the first place under Ethiopian, embracing the Kafir [non-moslem?], Hottentot, Australian, Alforian, and Oceanic negroes.

Pritchard and Latham [another body of work that can not be located] rightly protest against the error of considering the term negro synonymous with African.

There are dark-skinned people of various types throughout the tropical countries of the world.

The negro properly so called is dark-skinned, with wooly hair and other characteristics, while differing in minor traits.

**It is a mistake to hold, as some do, that all negroes have common traits.

**Professor Jerome Dowd, a Southern white man, declares that "to speak of all negroes in Africa as one race having common characteristics, is as misleading and is as unscientific as if we should consider all Europeans and Americans as of one race and attribute to all of them the same traits."

In 1899-1900 Jerome Dowd, Professor of Political Economy and Sociology [Duke University  http://econ.duke.edu/about/history/department-narratives], taught a two-semester course in "Economics" for juniors.

**Observations and the records of the African continent go to show that it is not necessarily the races with the blackest skins that are lowest in the scale of civilization.

The negro is originally a native of the Sudan and other parts of West and Central Africa, where there is now [1910] a population of about 128,000,000 blacks.

In the West Indies, South America, and the United States they are the descendants of Africans, though in the United States those of mixed blood, the mulattoes, and even those with a preponderance of white blood are classed as negroes.

History

The origin of the negro race dates from the formation of races in the twilight of human history.

Like the origin of the human race in general, it is a subject for anthropologists and theologians.

The ethnological aspects of the question are many and varied.

The original African is said to be the Bushman, who is rather brown than black; the negro, the real black man, probably came from other regions.

This, however, must have occurred at a remote period.

The chief divisions of the native population of Africa are the negro, or black, the Bushman, and the Bantu, or mixed, races, generally brown in colour, who invaded South Africa, driving out the original Bushman.

But centuries of slavery have so broken and intermingled the different stocks that it is difficult to find the negro without any mixture of foreign blood.

The history of the black man in America, with which this article is more especially concerned, begins with the African slave-trade.

Under the compulsion and rod of the slave-master the negro became part of the population of the New World. The negro slavery of modern times followed the discovery of America.

The Portuguese, who possessed a large part of the west African coast, began the employment of negroes as slaves, in which they were followed by others colonizing the new World.

The first country in the New World to which negroes were extensively brought was Haiti, or Hispaniola.

The aboriginal race had at first been employed in the mines there, but this kind of labour was found so fatal to them that Las Casas, Bishop of Chiapa, the celebrated protector of the Indians, although at a later period he disapproved of slavery, urged Charles V to substitute African slaves as a stronger race.

Bartoleme de las Casas, a Spanish colonist, a priest, founder of a Utopian community and first Bishop of Chiapas, was a scholar, historian and 16th century human rights advocate. Las Casas has been called the Father of anti-imperialism and anti-racism. Others take a more guarded or modest view of his achievements. What there is little or no dispute about is that Las Casas was an early and energetic advocate and activist for the rights of native peoples.

Las Casas came to the Indies early, he knew Columbus and was the editor of the Admiral's journal. He knew conditions in the Americas first hand. As the reading in our packet indicates, he was present during Spanish genocidal attacks on the native population of Cuba.

After coming to the realization that the Spanish treatment of the native population was unconscionable, Las Casas became a Dominican priest, and began travelling back and forth accross the Atlantic. He was in part responsible for the repeal of the laws which allowed the Indians to be used in what amounted to slave labor gangs. This was the econmienda system. Government officials were willing to go along with this attempt to end the system for they feared that a new class of feudal lords would arise in the colonies. The Spanish colonists were outraged at this interference. Las Casas attempted to set up a colony on the coast of Venezuala where the native people would be treated properly. It failed largely because of the bad example set by the colony's neighbors.

Because of preassures from the colonists, the encomienda system was restored. Las Casas returned to Spain and was eventually able to bring about the great debate of 1550 in the Spanish capital of Valladolid between Las Casas and the advocate for the colonists Juan Gines de Sepulveda. The excerpt in our packet is from Las Casas' account of the debate.

The advocates of the encomienda system eventually triumphed. When the government realized that it might lose Peru to colonists revolting over this issue, it gave in. Still, Las Casas is a shining example of resistance to the ill treatment of native peoples. His works were translated accross Europe. He likely influenced the French essayist Montaigne's views about the new world.

Accordingly, the emperor, in 1517, authorized a large importation of negroes.

Sir John Hawkins was the first Englishman who engaged in the traffic. Others of his countrymen soon followed his example on an extensive scale. England is said to have taken, between 1680 and 1700, no fewer than 300,000 slaves from Africa, and between 1700 and 1786 Jamaica alone absorbed 610,000.

A Dutch ship brought from the Guinea Coast to Jamestown, Virginia, a cargo of twenty negroes in 1620; this was the beginning of slavery in the English colonies of America.

 

 

An English company obtained the monopoly of supplying negro slaves to the Spanish colonies for thirty years; the contract was annulled by Spain in 1739, and England thereupon declared war on Spain.

The number of slaves annually exported from Africa amounted, at the end of the eighteenth century to 74,000.

Between 1680 and 1786 there were 2,130,000 negro slaves brought into the British colonies of America, including the West Indies.

Altogether it is estimated that probably 12,000,000 slaves were landed in North and South America from the beginning to the end of the slave-trade.

An equal number is supposed to have perished in the African slave raids and on their way to America.

The slave-trade was usually attended with extreme cruelty; the ships which transported the slaves from Africa to America were overcrowded to such an extent that a large proportion died on the passage.

The treatment of the slave after his arrival depended much on the character of his master; restraints, however, were imposed by law in the various settlements to protect slaves from injury.

Early in the seventeenth century Cartagena, in Colombia, was a noted slave market.

This was the field of labour of St. Peter Claver, of the Society of Jesus, the apostle of the negroes.



As many as twelve thousand slaves were landed annually at Cartagena.

They were usually in a wretched condition, and the saint sought to alleviate their hardships and sufferings.

In time a strong Christian sentiment asserted itself against the traffic. In Catholic times in Europe and the East, under the benign influence of the Catholic Church, the nations gradually emancipated the slaves.

From the beginning of the Africa slave-trade the popes, from Pius II, in the fifteenth century, to Leo XIII, in the nineteenth, issued encyclicals and directed anathemas against the barbarous and inhuman treatment of human beings in slavery.

The traffic and its cruelties were condemned by the Holy See before the discovery of America.

In America the Friends, or Quakers, of Pennsylvania, in 1776, required their members holding slaves to emancipate them.

Abolition societies were formed to discourage and oppose the slave-trade.

On a great increase in the traffic, action was taken by the British Government and further importation of slaves into the colonies was prohibited in 1805.

The United States prohibited the importation of slaves from Africa in 1808, though to some extent slaves continued to be brought into the country secretly and unlawfully up to the emancipation of the slaves during the Civil War.

The importation of slaves was likewise forbidden in the South American republics.

Eventually, all the states of Europe passed laws or entered into treaties prohibiting the traffic.

The next thing was the total abolition of slavery and the emancipation of slaves.

This was brought about in the British colonies in 1834. The French emancipated their negroes in 1848.

In Haiti slavery ceased as far back as 1791; its abolition was one of the results of the negro insurrection of that year.

Many of the Spanish-American states abolished slavery on declaring their independence; the others have since that time abolished the institution.

Brazil passed a law of gradual emancipation in 1871.

Pope Leo XIII, in 1888, wrote to the bishops of Brazil setting forth the position of the Church on slavery: he condemned the cruelties of the slave-trade and commended the abolition of slavery.

In the United States slavery was firmly established at the time of the Declaration of Independence and was recognized by the Constitution, ratified in 1788.

There were then several hundred thousand slaves in the republic. Slavery declined in the Northern states, but not in the South, where negro labour was required for the cultivation of sugar and cotton.

The diversity of feeling and interest between the North and South on the question of slavery brought about the Civil War [questionable and another topic for another time].

Negro slavery was then brought to an end in the United States when, in the interest of the Union and as a military measure, President Lincoln issued his Proclamation of Emancipation (1 January, 1863).

Since acquiring freedom the negro has increased in numbers and advanced in a material way.

Discrimination, prejudice, and fierce criticism have spurred on the more ambitious and more respectable class among them to acquire education and property.

In less than forty years of freedom, up to the year 1900, the number of blacks that could read and write rose from 5 to 55 percent.

The rate of increase of the negro population is estimated by the United States Census authorities to be about 15 percent for the ten years preceding the Census of 1900.

The Census Reports for 1900 give 8,833,994 negroes for the Continental United States.

There are also 363,742 persons of pure or mixed negro blood under United States jurisdiction in Porto Rico.

The Census statistics for 1910 in relation to the various races are not as yet available, but by using the normal percentage of increase, we may estimate the approximate figures for that year, placing the present negro population of the Continental United States at 10,158,092.

The census of mulattoes or those of mixed blood of varying degree was taken in the years 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1890.

While this enumeration is acknowledged to be very subject to error, some general results have been obtained. The indications are that from 11 to 16 percent of those classed as negroes have some degree of white blood.

The figures warrant the belief that between one-sixth and one-ninth of the negro population of the Continental United States have been regarded by four groups of enumerators as bearing evidence of an admixture of white blood.

In the South negroes form about one-third of the population.

In 1900 three-tenths of the entire negro population of the country were living in the adjoining states of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.

These, together with the adjacent Atlantic-Coast states (Virginia, North, and South Carolina) and the Gulf states (Louisiana and Texas), had then each over half a million negroes.



 
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